Thus, while the American policy-makers hoped to employ Egypt's influence as a barrier to Soviet subversion, Cairo sought to eliminate external influences and mobilize Arab resources behind its drive for regional leadership. The inherent conflict between a superpower focused on curbing Soviet moves and a local regime preoccupied with regional challenges eventually caused a breakdown in US-Egyptian relations.
The other facet of this study is assessment of Anglo-American relations and the role that Britain played in the Eisenhower administration's conception of Middle East security. Much of the literature on Anglo-American relations in this period is constructed through the prism of the Suez Crisis, and professes an American determination to replace the problematic British establishment. This study suggests that. An unknown error has occurred. Please click the button below to reload the page.
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Egypt from Independence to Revolution, Fahmi, Khaled. The eventual goal was the peaceful evolution of these countries into functioning, pro-western democracies. This was the template for U.
THE ORIGINS OF THE EISENHOWER DOCTRINE: THE US, BRITAIN AND NASSER'S EGYPT, 1953-57.
Unfortunately for its prospects of success, it was only partly congruent with Egypt's own perceived interests. In particular, Egypt's leaders were generally never sympathetic to communism, but they did not fear anything like a takeover by the Soviet Union. In fact, following a long established practice in Mideast diplomatic circles, they looked for ways to play off one great power against another to their advantage. Egypt had centuries of experience in warding off the domination of great powers by playing them against one another. When the U.
In addition, the political power that Egyptian leaders wielded, like that in other countries in the region, was weak. In a way that American diplomats did not understand, Mideast leaders had to adjust their countries' alliances constantly with one another and could not make permanent, unilateral alliances.
It was an Egyptian goal to enhance its own power in the region, not as the leader of a pro-American alliance. The Egyptians unfailingly heard these assurances to mean that the U. Sometimes, however, U.
Eisenhower Doctrine | toxunireni.cf
This miscommunication caused confusion. Internal Egyptian politics made Egyptian King Farouk align himself increasingly with factions that demanded an immediate abrogation of an earlier treaty that allowed Britain to continue control over the Suez Canal and that Britain pull all its troops out of Egypt. The U. To the U. State Department concluded that it would find a more sympathetic hearing from another ruler.
Historians have reached different conclusions about the extent of the involvement of U.
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The coup occurred in July The military government immediately asked for U. A State Department official agreed, but the Secretary of State and the President balked at the deal, which caused internal political problems for the Egyptian leaders. Dulles' brother Allen was made director of the CIA. The Dulles brothers provided military advisors and equipment to the Egyptian army.
Through clandestine contacts, both the State Department and the CIA gave Egyptian leaders, especially Nasser, important intelligence training and assistance in moderating potential internal political rivals and in conducting propaganda campaigns.
In , Nasser edged out Naguid and ascended to sole leadership of the military government. During the tumult surrounding this, Nasser was able to disband the main faction of his opposition, the Moslem Brotherhood, after an assassination attempt during one of his speeches, in which the would-be assassin fired seven shots at him, but missed. Public sympathy for Nasser surged, allowing him to quash his opposition. Nasser's chief of security much later admitted that the CIA had given Nasser a bulletproof vest, which he was wearing during his speech, raising the issue of whether the assassination attempt was a setup, designed to benefit Nasser.
Egypt looked for military equipment and aid.
During this period, both State and the CIA provided it, sometimes clandestinely, hoping for a formal military alliance with Egypt, and for Egypt to take the lead in reaching a peace settlement with Israel. Egypt, however, extracted as much military and economic assistance from the U.
It was Nasser's intention to adopt a policy of "neutralism" between West and East that is, between the U. The Soviets hoped to counter Western influence in these countries by promoting anti-colonial sentiment and supporting socialist reform there. The strategy was quite successful, at least for a time.
Related The Origins of the Eisenhower Doctrine: The US, Britain and Nasser’s Egypt, 1953–57
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