Moscow: LKI. Heidegger, M. On the essence of language: the metaphysics of language and the essencing of the word; concerning Herder's treatise On the origin of language. Die Sprache im Gedicht. Frankfurt a. Main: Vittorio Klostermann. Bloomington: Indiana University Press. Khaidegger, M. Vvedenie v metafiziku [Introduction to metaphysics]. Polozhenie ob osnovanii.
Stat'i i fragmenty [The principle of reason. Articles and fragments]. Petersburg: Aletejja. Bytie i vremya [Time and Being]. Petersburg: Nauka. Mandel'shtam, O. Razgovor o Dante [Talk on Dante]. Moscow: Progress-Pleyada. Mikhailov, A. Istoricheskaya poetika i germenevtika [Selected essays.
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Historical poetics and hermeneutics]. Petersburg State University. Pas, O. Osvyashchenie miga [The Consecration of the instant]. This understanding is written Being as Being and with the capital B at present in order to distinguish it from being as an entity or the being-ness of a being that marks the assumptions of metaphysical thinking. The ontological difference is often reflected in terminology, such as the difference between beings and Being, or between the ontic and the ontological.
While the ontological difference was pre-eminent in Heidegger's thought in lecture courses and writings from the s, this key distinction, in allowing for catching sight of Being, remains a feature of his thought for the remainder of his career see Harman, , pp. It is our being so wrapped up in our own existence that makes the idea or thinking of Being - much less the asking of the question of Being - so tricky and arduous. For example, a building is a being, but the Being of the building is itself not a being. How then do we gain access to Being? Heidegger suggests that one clue might be through the sense of smell:.
One can, as it were, smell the Being of such buildings, and often after decades one still has the scent in one's nose. The scent provides the Being of this being much more directly and truly than it could be communicated by any description or inspection. School buildings, hallways and classrooms are said to have their own specific smells about them. Upon arrival, a quick inhale can transport one back in time. The question of Being in education, as Heidegger intimates, may be more about the nose than the roles human beings embody.
Given that the nature and focus of education has been left both undefined and unspecified as opposed to, for example, vocational education, K education or higher education , education can be conceived of in the broadest terms possible as a human capacity and endeavour. Education, as a process of teaching and learning in formal and informal settings, is a thriving area of scholarship and philosophical study.
However, it can benefit profoundly from more extensive analysis via phenomenological ontology. Specifically, answering the question of Being in education requires Heidegger's phenomenological ontology.
Background and early career
Why raise the question of Being in education at all? In addition to James Magrini's call for greater thought regarding the dominance of social efficiency and instrumentalism in education, the philosopher of education Michael Peters ; has argued for bringing Heidegger into greater dialogue within the field of philosophy of education.
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Peters contends that: "Heidegger and his forms of phenomenology have been a neglected figure in the field of philosophy of education in the English speaking world. Considering Heidegger not only as a philosopher, but also as a teacher, is worthy of reflection, given that "[n]o philosopher since Socrates was so committed to questions of education and to good teaching as Heidegger" Peters, , p. Donald Vandenberg, an early advocate for the intersection of Heidegger's thinking and educational scholarship and practice, asks a poignant question in arguing for the thinking of Being in education:.
How can Heidegger's analysis of human existence as being there, as Dasein, as articulated in his magnum opus, help us to understand the educational journey of becoming who one can become, oneself, as distinct from becoming what other people want one to be, rather than who one is?
Approaching the answer to Vandenberg's question requires a turn to the way of Heidegger's thinking: phenomenological ontology. Ways or paths are important in Heidegger's thinking; so important that he urged readers in the draft preface to his Gesamtausgabe [Collected Works] to consider his published writings as "ways, not works":. The collected edition should indicate various ways: it is underway in the field of paths of the self-transforming asking of the many-sided question of Being. The point is to awaken the confrontation about the question concerning the topic of thinking.
Of course, such a thing is always possible, especially in the information age, but for preparing the questioning access to the topic of thinking, it is completely useless. GA1, pp. While the later Heidegger focused on analyzing the historicity of Being in relationship to, for example, art, technology, and poetry, in the first part of his life he was quick to name his way toward the question of Being: phenomenology.
Even in his later teachings, he remained faithful to the manner of phenomenological inquiry. I name the thinking here in question tautological thinking.
It is the primordial sense of phenomenology. Further, this kind of thinking is before any possible distinction between theory and praxis. To understand this we need to learn to distinguish between "path" and "method".
In philosophy, there are only paths; in the sciences, on the contrary, there are only methods, that is, modes of procedure. Methodology, as it is traditionally understood, is best grasped within Heidegger's thinking as a way. The word "way" must be heard as addressing not only a what but, even more importantly, a how of doing philosophy. For Heidegger, phenomenological ontology is the pathway to the meaning of the question of Being, not in a prescriptive sense but in an attuned and receptive manner. In the following section, the relationship between ontology, phenomenology and Heidegger's phenomenological ontology is addressed.
Heidegger's Phenomenological Ontology. With the question of Being as our focus, we are already within the realm of ontology. Ontology is the philosophical domain and distinction that denotes the study of reality, of all that is. Specifically, and in a Heideggerian sense, ontology is often referred to as the science or study of being as such and in general. Where ontology stands within Heidegger's thinking as a whole is complicated by his struggle to name and provoke the fundamental matter for thinking, the question of Being.
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As Heidegger's thinking matured, he came to consider ontology as in the service of metaphysics, and metaphysics as the ultimate realm of philosophy and philosophizing. If ontology refers to the study of Being and beings in the sense framed by traditional metaphysics as being and their being-ness, then Heidegger would not accept the use of this term. But if ontology were to point to thinking of Being as Being, Heidegger would concur.
But how to approach the question of Being? Traditionally understood, phenomenology is the study of the lived experience of human beings.
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This was troubling for Heidegger, because Being was, via Husserl's methodological bracketing, presupposed. In his early to mid-career, roughly from through the mids, Heidegger referred to his methodological approach to philosophical inquiry as fundamental ontology, but this naming was simply another way of saying phenomenological ontology. These lecture courses are critical for understanding phenomenological ontology, as they directly followed the publication of Being and Time, wherein Heidegger demonstrated the carrying out of a fundamental ontology into the being of Dasein. Heidegger's phenomenological ontology seeks to ground and understand phenomena not only as they appear and are constituted in lived experience, but also as the phenomena are experienced contextually, temporally and historically via Dasein.
Van Manen describes Dasein as "a Heideggerian term which refers to that entity or aspect of our humanness which is capable of wondering about its own existence and inquiring into its own Being" p. Some scholars recommend substituting "human being" for Dasein, but this could be misleading, as Heidegger uses the term to denote much more. For this reason, Dasein is almost always left untranslated in English translations of Heidegger's thinking. Specifically, Dasein is the root of phenomenological ontology.
Related The Ontology of Time: Being and Time in the Philosophies of Aristotle, Husserl and Heidegger
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