- The Idea of America: Reflections on the Birth of the United States.
- Under the Black Flag.
- The High-Level Panel and the Prospects for Reform of UN Peace Operations?
- How Peace Operations Work?
- Under the Radar: A Novel.
- How Peace Operations Work: Power, Legitimacy and Effectiveness;
In international relations, scholars have sought to explain the reasons that states comply with, or resist, international regimes;10 international legal theorists have considered why states comply with particu- lar rules and principles;11 political theorists have asked why citizens comply ted with governments;12 and social psychologists have examined why people obey domestic law.
Careful empirical research is also required to distinguish between the multiple possible reasons for a sin- op gle act of cooperation, a task for which this book develops a new analytical framework. Given that the power relationship between a peace opera- ev tion and local actors is a social one, the reception of power matters; that is, the power of a peace operation depends on how it is perceived by local actors.
The concept of legitimacy has attracted substantial attention in research about international organizations in recent years. Some scholars have sought to uncover the sources of local legitimacy in peace oper- ations; among their starting points are international norms,27 local norms,28 accountability, especially to the local population,29 and social contracts. The aim is not to develop a generalizable theory of effective- ness that will hold true across all cases, but to identify the causal processes ted through which an operation affects local actor behaviour.
Each allows within-case comparison of variation in the effective- yri ness of a single operation, in addition to comparison between operational set- tings. While it ought to be possible to analyse the agency of peace operations -C regardless of the structural constraints, the inclusion of a particularly hard case would limit the ability to trace the processes through which operations exercise agency. It is hoped that the foundations laid here enable that larger task to be tackled in future research. Given the acknowledged paucity of rigorous theorizing about the perfor- iew mance of peace operations and the substantively new questions that this book is posing, the utility of investigating multiple operations is restricted by the need for substantial conceptual work to develop the power—legitimacy framework.
First, it draws on the richness of social power theory in other disciplinary literatures, adapt- ing it as necessary to the context of peace operations, which are understood as institutions that operate through social power relationships with actors in the local realm. Second, this framework is applied to study peace operations in Cambodia and Solomon Islands. Some studies which ask similar questions, ter such as social psychology research about why people obey the law, use sur- vey and experimental methods to measure perceptions and trace causal links to outcomes.
The central methodological challenge for this approach is to identify the motivations for local actor behaviour in each case. The case studies are conducted using a process tracing methodology to Ma analyse multiple interactions within each case. Process tracing involves the detailed examination of diverse data to identify and track the links between possible causes and observed outcomes.
These research interviews provided crucial data about the micro-level pro- ev cesses and decisions that, in the case of RAMSI in particular, were unavail- able in other sources. Inis L. Claude, Jr. Stephen John Stedman, Donald S. Rothchild, and Elizabeth M. Cousens eds.
Fortna, Does Peacekeeping Work? Sisk eds. Downs, David M. Rocke, and Peter N. Simmons eds. Thomas M. Tom R. Pr Following David A. Ma An important debate in the relational power literature concerns the broadening of causation to include not just the direct power of one actor over another but also the indirect means through which power is exercised.
See Peter Bachrach and Morton S. On compulsory power, see Michael N. While typologies vary slightly, this tripartite framework has been employed in social psychology research—see Herbert C. French and Bertram H. Joseph S. Barnett and Duvall include these other dimensions in their four-component typology of power, distinguishing between compulsory, institutional, produc- ev tive and structural power; see Barnett and Duvall, Power in Global Governance.
Richard Caplan, A New Trusteeship?
How Peace Operations Work: Power, Legitimacy, and Effectiveness
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Peace operations and ‘no peace to keep’
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